GENERAL INFO PERU
covers an area of 1,285,216 sq km of which 62 % is Andean slopes and tropical forest – ´Selva` ; 26 % is ´Sierra`, the andes highlands, with an average of 3000m and 50 % of Peru´s population; the dry coastal region – ´Costa` - though 2250 km long - only covers 11 % of Peru´s surface and – due to Lima - holds 44% of the population.Peru is divided in 3 geographical and climate zones. On the coast summer is from December to April, with temperatures up to 35 ° C, while
May to November is cooler and mostly cloudy (humid)- due to the
In the sierra April to October is dry season, hot during the day and cold at night, November to March is rainy season, with clear days and mostly afternoon rains.
The rainforest´s seasons are the same as in the sierra, but temperatures are up to 35 °C. and the humidity is high, especially during
the rainy season.
Peru´s population has reached almost
till end of august 2010 which results in a population density of 19 inhab./ sq km (in Europe it is over 200 inhab./ sq km).
The indigenous population is considered over 3 Million belonging to the Quechua and Aymara; in Amazonia there are over 40 ethnic groups totaling 250,000 people. Apart from Spanish (castellano), Quechua is spoken, in rural and remote areas this language of the Incas is more important than Spanish, and is now tought in schools again.
The Peruvian Amazon
Amazonia is the forest with the greatest extension on earth and being a tropical rainforest it is famous for its high biodiversity. Due to the late migration of man to (South-)Amerca, Amazonia includes vast areas of primary forest.
In central Amazonia there were found up to 500 tree species on 1 ha, whereas in other tropical forests the number is between 100 and 200 per ha
Also concerning animals the diversity is extremely high, one sixth of all bird species lives in Amazonia.
The scarcity of nutrients is the mayor reason for the diversity of species, competition is high, every niche has its – specialized- being and there are multiple ways of defense and protection.
The Amazon being the largest river system
on earth and the second longest river on earth, has a length of 6518 km (Nile: 6671 km). Afluents of the Amazon are the Rio Marañon, Rio Huallaga and Rio Ucayali, all having their origin in the Peruvian Andes.